Document Type
6 pages
Word Count
1451 words
University Of Mindanao
Course Code
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Activity 3.
1. How species and communities evolve? Does evolution significantly influence the structure of
the future community and population structure?
Communities do not evolve but rather, they change over time in terms of composition,
diversity, and organization. Both regional causes and local processes influence the formation of
local communities, both of which can influence evolving patterns and processes within those
groups. The effects of evolution occurring in any of the situations of human involvement on
species' population dynamics are very obvious. Human-caused evolution has the potential to
significantly modify population abundance, age structure, and growth rate.
2. What is adaptation? How organisms adapt in a pressing environmental situation?
An adaptation is any inherited trait that aids an organism's survival and reproduction in its
environment, such as a plant or animal. Adaptation is the biological mechanism by which
organisms adjust to new environments or changes in their current environment, according to
evolutionary theory. Natural selection is based on the idea that traits that can be passed down
allow organisms to adapt to their surroundings better than other organisms of the same
3. Are natural resource have effect on the species composition, structure, and function.
Because resource ratios have an impact on species coexistence, they also have an impact on
community biomass and productivity. The total resource supply increased biomass but
decreased species richness and evenness, according to the findings. Moreover, at the scale of
whole metacommunities, algal resource use efficiency increases with increasing richness and
evenness, indicating that resource composition is an important facilitator of the relationship
between diversity and resource absorption.
4. Why speciation happens? How speciation affects biological diversity.
When a group of individuals within a species separates from the rest of the species and
develops its own unique characteristics, this is known as speciation. The interaction of
speciation, range changes, and extinction has resulted in today's biodiversity patterns.
Speciation is the only one of these processes that produces 'new' diversity.
5. What is ecological succession? Does succession happen in an urban environment? If yes,
how? If no, why?
The process of a biological community's structure evolving over time is known as ecological
succession. Primary and secondary succession are two different types of succession. Primary
succession occurs in essentially lifeless environments when the soil is unable of supporting life
due to factors such as lava flows, newly formed sand dunes, or ice rocks. Secondary succession
happens when a previously existing community is gone. It is characterized by lesser
disturbances that do not completely remove all life and nutrients from the environment.
6. Why organisms compete? Can competition favor or eliminate biological species.
Organisms compete for resources such as air, water, food, and space in order to survive. In

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