6 pages
Word Count
1222 words
Course Code


January 12, 2020
GRAD 695 Research Methodology & Writing
Annotated Bibliography
Smartphones and Digital Divide
Praneeth Kumar, Pachimatla
The smartphone and the digital divide
The role that smartphones play is very crucial in regard to the concept of the digital
divide. The term defines the boundaries between those who have and those who do have the
capacity to access and be able to use information technology tools like television, telephones and
or the internet; To cut the difference and bring out the divide that exists as well as key measures
that can be used to reduce this divide, understanding the role of each item is of the essence. For
instance, if an individual uses a smartphone, for other purposes like entertainment, then it ceases
from being a smartphone to any a game player or a television. In such a case, it does not aid in
closing the great divide since most people in their houses possess game player and televisions.
Thus in order to close this gap, smartphones should be used as phones and not to serve as tools
for entertainment. Hence the great divide can get reduced subsequently.
Annotated bibliography
Crawford, S. P. (2011). The new digital divide. The New York Times, 12(03).
This article seeks to establish how the digital divide impacts the economy. However, it
looks into the prospects of a high number of persons who are being left out in the race to close
the digital divide gap. The study also airs the concern of closing out an individual from the
benefits of closing this divide based on class; it observes the more urban and well off individuals
are more likely to be more connected as opposed to poor and low-income individuals. Thus the
idea of having a whole range of people left out is ripe based on the fact that major life aspect like
politics, jobs healthcare, entertainment amongst others are quickly moving online.
Friemel, T. N. (2016). The digital divide has grown old: Determinants of a digital divide among
seniors. New media & society, 18(2), 313-331.
This article is written to bring into attention the digital divide among the various ages. It

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