According to Fiedler’s contingency model the most important dimension of situational control is task structure.
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Social loafing is an inevitable part of group effort.
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Unrealistic job expectations are formed during the anticipatory socialization phase.
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Possible sources of 360-degree feedback include managers, subordinates, and peers.
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Fair and just employee computer monitoring can be done to prevent cyberloafing.
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When the environment is relatively stable and certain, the successful organizations tend to be organic.
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According to Maslow, having enough food, air, and water to survive is the most basic need.
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The behavioral component of attitude is defined as the beliefs or ideas that one has about an object or situation.
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The contingency management framework advocates a hard-and-fast rule about group size.
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A psychological contract represents an employee’s beliefs about what he or she is entitled to receive in return for what he or she provides to the organization.
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Information is retrieved from memory when people make judgments and decisions.
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According to Alderfer’s ERG theory, frustration of higher-order needs can influence the desire for lower-order needs.
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To shape behavior, a manager should reinforce the desired behavior as quickly as possible.
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Linguistic style influences perceptions about one’s confidence, competence, and abilities.
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According to the full-range theory of leadership, laissez-faire leadership is the worst type of leadership.
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Arbitration does not permit voluntary participation.
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Advice teams are responsible for performing day-to-day operations.
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Stereotypes potentially distort communication because their use causes people to misperceive and filter information.
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Personal values essentially represent the things that have meaning to us in our lives.
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Positive and negative peer pressure powerfully influence role performance.
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Power is generally a negative force in organizations.
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Recipients of feedback perceive it to be more accurate when they passively receive feedback.
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According to the trait approach to studying leadership, three traitsintelligence, dominance, and masculinityare associated with leadership prototypes.
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Millennials are entitled, civic minded, and have close parental involvement.
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According to Fiedler’s contingency model, position power refers to the degree to which the leader has formal power to reward or punish employees.
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Stereotyping helps in minimizing cross-cultural conflict.
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The proactive personality dimension is the most frequently studied of the Big Five personality dimensions.
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In an in-group exchange, leaders are characterized as overseers who fail to create a sense of mutual trust, respect, or common fate in in-group exchange.
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Optimizing involves solving problems by choosing solutions that are “good enough.”
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Socializing and training newcomers is an individual function of formal groups.
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Affective commitment reflects a feeling of obligation to continue employment.
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Interactional justice refers to the perceived fairness of the process and procedures used to make allocation decisions.
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Intuition is a practical approach when resources are limited and deadlines are tight.
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To create more triangling, one should reroute complaints by coaching the sender to find ways to constructively bring up the matter with the receiver.
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Group cohesiveness is a major by-product of the performing stage of group development.
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Consensus requires unanimous agreements.
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The Delphi technique is useful when face-to-face discussions are impractical and when disagreements and conflict are likely to impair communication.
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Trust is defined as reciprocal faith in others’ intentions and behavior.
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George has a habit of disrupting meetings by asking irrelevant questions and daydreaming. He does not listen to his colleagues’ ideas and presentations during meetings. His colleagues are getting irritated with his behavior. This implies that George is stimulating:
A. programmed conflict.
B. devil’s advocacy.
C. functional conflict.
D. workplace incivility.
E. the dialectic method.
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People from _____ cultures emphasize personal responsibility for one’s affairs.
A. proximal
B. polychronic
C. high-context
D. individualistic
E. collectivist
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Bill provides directions to his house to Mark. Mark listens carefully to make sure that he does not forget the directions and does not get lost on the way. Which stage of the information processing model is Mark currently undergoing?
A. Selective attention/comprehension
B. Encoding and simplification
C. Storage and retention
D. Retrieval and response
E. Implicit cognition
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Helen plans for several activities simultaneously on a daily basis. Most often, it is impossible to execute them on time as she has so many activities. However, the impossibility factor does not affect her as she believes that time is flexible. This implies that Helen belongs to a _____ culture.
A. low-context
B. polychronic
C. monochronic
D. universalistic
E. relativistic
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Functional conflict:
A. usually involves verbal attacks.
B. is more likely to trigger defense mechanisms and a competitive orientation among team members.
C. serves the interests of the organization.
D. is a method of alternative dispute resolution.
E. threatens the organization’s interests.
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According to Vroom’s expectancy theory, _____ represents an individual’s belief that a particular degree of effort will be followed by a particular level of performance.
A. goal difficulty
B. valence
C. instrumentality
D. self-esteem
E. expectancy
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_____ is a barrier to implementing successful diversity programs that particularly affects women.
A. Fear of reverse discrimination
B. Lack of political savvy
C. Poor career planning
D. Resistance to change
E. Difficulty in balancing career and family issues
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Which of the following is true regarding hygiene factors?
A. They are motivational.
B. They are associated with the work context or environment.
C. They are associated with achievement and recognition.
D. They cause a person to move from a state of no satisfaction to satisfaction.
E. They are relatively more important than motivators.
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According to John Kotter’s steps for leading organizational change, when management unfreezes the organization by creating a compelling reason for why change is needed, it is:
A. generating short-term wins.
B. creating a guiding coalition.
C. developing a vision and strategy.
D. establishing a sense of urgency.
E. communicating the change vision.
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Which of the following is true about organizational values?
A. Organizations subscribe to only one set of values.
B. The basic underlying assumptions of organizational culture are relatively easy to change.
C. Organizational change is more likely to succeed if there is a great deal of inconsistency between individual values and organizational values.
D. Organizations are less likely to accomplish corporate goals when employees perceive an inconsistency between the espoused values of the organization and their own personal characteristics.
E. Enacted values drive organizational culture and espoused values are irrelevant.
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Under which of the following conditions is supportive and directive leadership helpful?
A. When employees have an internal locus of control
B. When employees have high task ability
C. When employees are less experienced
D. When employees’ need for achievement is low
E. When employees do not fit into the work group dynamics
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Which of the following types of power tend to produce commitment, as opposed to compliance or resistance?
A. Expert, reward, and positive legitimate power
B. Referent, reward, and expert power
C. Coercive, positive legitimate, and reward power
D. Referent, expert, and negative legitimate power
E. Expert, referent, and positive legitimate power
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Which of the following behaviors would help managers to harness the Pygmalion effect?
A. Reinforce positive performance expectations throughout the organization
B. Recognize the few select individuals who have the potential to increase their performance
C. Set moderate performance goals
D. Help only the best employees to advance through the organization
E. Highlight the names of the lowest performers
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According to Lewin’s change model, the _____ stage involves providing employees with new information, new behavioral models, or new ways of looking at things.
A. refreezing
B. changing
C. settling
D. unfreezing
E. converting
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_____ is defined as the ability to manage oneself and interact with others in mature and constructive ways.
A. Self-esteem
B. Emotional intelligence
C. Self-efficacy
D. Locus of control
E. Personality
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Which of the following is a personal characteristic that influences employee engagement?
A. Organizational culture
B. PE fit
C. Psychological safety
D. Leader behavior
E. Line of sight
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Based on information gathered in the GLOBE project, _____ reflects how much should leaders encourage and reward loyalty to the social unit, as opposed to the pursuit of individual goals.
A. uncertainty avoidance
B. assertiveness
C. future orientation
D. performance orientation
E. institutional collectivism
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When there was a rapid increase in valuation of housing, lenders and buyers strongly believed that prices would keep going up. The subsequent drop in housing values left both banks and borrowers with huge losses. This incident is a result of:
A. representativeness heuristic.
B. anchoring bias.
C. availability bias.
D. fundamental attribution error.
E. over-confidence bias.
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Jill recently joined a large accounting firm. During the interview process, she was informed that the first raise for new hires usually takes place about a year after their joining date. However, she has been with the firm for just six months and has already received her first raise. The work is even more challenging and enjoyable than what she expected it to be. Additionally, she has been pleasantly surprised at the support and friendliness shown to her by her colleagues. When asked by a researcher studying job satisfaction, Jill rated her level of job satisfaction as “very high.” Which model of job satisfaction best explains Jill’s level of satisfaction with her job?
A. Dispositional/genetic
B. Equity
C. Value attainment
D. Discrepancy
E. Need fulfillment
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_____ is a nonverbal body movement that communicates defensiveness.
A. Leaning forward
B. Learning backward
C. Pointing
D. Crossing one’s legs
E. Smiling
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Realistic job previews serve to _____.
A. decrease turnover
B. decrease performance
C. increase absenteeism
D. decrease job satisfaction
E. decrease organizational commitment
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The majority of people from high-context cultures prefer:
A. to get down to business first.
B. negotiations to be as efficient as possible.
C. to come to agreement by specific, legalistic contract.
D. negotiations to be slow and ritualistic.
E. expertise and performance.
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In which of the following stages of life is a person least likely to change his or her general attitudes?
A. Childhood
B. Adolescence
C. Early adulthood
D. Middle adulthood
E. Early adolescence
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Bill is distracted during class. He cannot even remember what the lecture was about. This is an example of a _____ barrier.
A. sender
B. receiver
C. medium
D. decoding
E. feedback
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Which of the following statements racial groups is true?
A. Minorities tend to earn less personal income than whites.
B. Asians have the lowest median income.
C. Minorities experience more psychological support than whites.
D. Minorities experience less perceived discrimination.
E. Minorities do not suffer subordination.
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_____ change is lowest in complexity, cost, and uncertainty.
A. Strategic
B. Innovative
C. Adaptive
D. Radical
E. Functional
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According to Lewin’s change model, the _____ stage involves helping employees integrate the new behavior into their normal way of doing things.
A. changing
B. settling
C. refreezing
D. unfreezing
E. converting
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Every instance of a target behavior is reinforced when a _____ reinforcement schedule is in effect.
A. fixed reward
B. continuous
C. variable interval
D. fixed interval
E. variable ratio
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Which of the following tips should be used by managers to reduce personality conflict?
A. Take sides in someone else’s personality conflict.
B. Do not let parties work things themselves out.
C. Do not attempt informal dispute resolution.
D. Avoid communicating directly with the other person to resolve the perceived conflict.
E. Investigate and document conflict.
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_____ is a cognitive process that enables us to interpret and understand our surroundings.
A. The self-fulfilling prophecy
B. A salient stimulus
C. The fundamental attribution error
D. Stereotypes
E. Perception
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According to the job characteristics model, growth need strength is an example of a _____.
A. core job characteristic
B. critical psychological state
C. moderator
D. control variable
E. outcome
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Describe the application of the contingency approach to the selection of media.
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_____ holds that people are motivated to behave in ways that produce desired combinations of expected outcomes.
A. Equity theory
B. Expectancy theory
C. Management by objective
D. Goal setting theory
E. Cognitive dissonance theory
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_____ refers to the extent to which the job affects the lives of other people within or outside the organization.
A. Feedback
B. Autonomy
C. Task significance
D. Skill variety
E. Task identity
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