Type
Essay
Pages
23 pages
Word Count
1074 words
School
Dtu
Course Code
HSS

English

November 21, 2020
INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ROORKEE
CSN-101 (Introduction to Computer Science and Engineering)
Dr. Sudip Roy
Assistant Professor
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
Lecture 6: Evolution of Computer Hardware, Moore's Law
Piazza Class Room: https://piazza.com/iitr.ac.in/fall2019/csn101
[Access Code: [email protected]]
Moodle Submission Site: https://moodle.iitr.ac.in/course/view.php?id=45
[Enrollment Key: [email protected]]
2
Plan for Lecture Classes in CSN-101
(Autumn, 2019-2020)
3
The Word - Computer
The word "computer" was first recorded in 1613
Originally used to describe a human who performed
calculations or computations
This definition remained same until the end of the 19th
century, when the industrial revolution gave rise to machines
whose primary purpose was calculating
4
Introduction
Today's Scenario:
personal computer > computer
(2017, $500) (1985, 1 million dollars)
Mainly in terms of:
1. Performance
2. Main memory
3. Disk storage
5
Introduction Contd
Reason???
Advances in the technology used to build
computers
Innovation in computer design.
6
Introduction Contd
Major Factors
Emergence of the microprocessor (1970s)
Improvements in IC technology
7
Introduction Contd
Growth in processor performance since the mid-1980s. This chart plots
performance relative to the VAX 11/780
8
Introduction Contd
• Since 2002, processor performance
improvement dropped to about 20% per
year
Lead to the use of multiple processors per
chip rather than via faster uniprocessors.
Adoption of parallelism
9
Classes of Computers
1960s, large mainframes:
Costing millions of dollars
Stored in computer rooms with
multiple operators overseeing their
support
Mainly for business data processing
and large-scale scientific computing
10
Classes of Computers contd
1970s, Minicomputers:
1) A smaller-sized computer
2) Focused on applications in scientific
Laboratories
3) Mainly for business data processing
and large-scale scientific computing
11
Classes of Computers contd
1970s, Supercomputers:
1) High-performance computers for
Scientific computing
2) Pioneered innovations that later trickled
down to less expensive computer classes
1980s, Desktop computers:
1) Based on microprocessors
2) In form of both personal computers
and workstations
12
Classes of Computers contd
• 1990s:
1) Internet and the World Wide Web
2) First successful handheld computing
devices: Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)
3) emergence of high-performance digital
consumer electronics: video games to
set-top boxes.
Extraordinary popularity of cell phones has been
obvious since 2000
13
Classes of Computers contd.
A summary of the three mainstream computing classes and their
system characteristics.
14
Desktop Computing
Largest market in dollar terms
Low-end systems selling under $500
Heavily configured workstations in
range of $5000
driven to optimize price performance.
Highest-performance microprocessors
and cost-reduced microprocessors
Servers
To provide larger-scale and more
reliable file and computing services
Backbone of large-scale enterprise
computing
Dependability is critical: may be
operated